AMIE References
B. Emery 01/26/99

This is a list a references about AMIE separated according to campaigns where data has been collected. The first campaigns were KRM campaigns, and the magnetometer files can be read either by AMIE or KRM, so there are also selected KRM references. A few campaigns have been used in various versions of the NCAR TGCM (TGCM, TIGCM, TIEGCM), so those papers are listed separately. There are also papers on the statistical models used and on the apex coordinate system. Any additions and corrections are welcome.

General AMIE References:

Kamide, Y. and A. D. Richmond,
Ground-based studies of sensing magnetosphere/ionosphere interactions: Convection and substorms. Proceedings of the Cluster Workshop, Svalbard, Norway, ESA SP-330, 1991.

Richmond, A. D. and Y. Kamide,
Mapping electrodynamic features of the high-latitude ionosphere from localized observations: Technique, J. Geophys. Res., 93, 5741-5759, 1988.

Richmond, A. D.,
Assimilative mapping of ionospheric electrodynamics, Adv. Space Res., Vol 12, No 6, pp (6)69-(6)68, 1992.

Lu, G., and A. D. Richmond,
Specification and Forecast of Ionospheric Conditions with AMIE, in The Evaluation of Space Weather Forecasts, pp. 35-38, Proceedings of a Workshop at Boulder, Colorado, June 19-21, 1996.

Knipp, D.J.,
Quantifying and Reducing the Uncertainty in the Assimilative Mapping of Ionospheric Electrodynamics, Ph.D. dissertation, UCLA, 1989.

Multi-Campaign AMIE References:

Buonsanto, M. J., G. Bust,R. Clark, M. Codrescu, G. Crowley, B. A. Emery, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, G. Hoogevenn, A. Jacobson, D. Knipp, S. Maurits, P. G. Richards, J. R. Taylor, and B. J. Watkins.
Recent results of the CEDAR storm study, Adv. Space Res., 20, No. 9, 1655-1664, 1997. (Mar 1990, Nov 1993)

Chun, F. K., D. J. Knipp, M. G. McHarg, G. Lu, B. A. Emery, and S. Vennerstrom,
Polar cap index as a proxy for hemispheric Joule heating, submitted to Geophys. Res. Lett., 1998. (Jan 1988, Mar 1990, Aug 1991, Nov 1991, Jan 1992, Mar 1992, Jul 1992, Feb 1993, Nov 1993, Apr 1994, Oct 1995, May 1996, Jan 1997)

Farrugia, C. J., J. D. Scudder, M. P. Freeman, L. Janoo, G. Lu, M. Quinn, R. L. Arnoldy, R. B. Torbert, L. F. Burlaga, K. W. Ogilvie, R. P. Lepping, A. J. Lazarus, J. T. Steinberg, F. T. Gratton, and G. Rostoker,
Geoeffectiveness of three WIND magnetic clouds: A comparative study J. Geophys. Res., 103, 17,261-17,278, 1998. (Oct 1995, May 1996, Jan 1997)

Knipp, D. J., B. A. Emery, and G. Lu,
Application of the AMIE procedure to cusp identification, in Physical Signatures of Magnetospheric Boundary Layer Processes, edited by J. A. Holtet and A. Egeland, pp. 401-419, NATO Advanced Studies Institute Series C, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1994. (Jan 1988, Mar 1990, Jan 1992)

Lu, G., A. D. Richmond, B. A. Emery, and D. J. Knipp,
AMIE procedure and its application, in Satellite-Ground Based Coordination Sourcebook, edited by M. Lockwood, M.N. Wild, and H.J. Opgenoorth, pp. 15-23, ESA Publication, SP-1198, June, 1997. (Jul 1983, Jan 1992)

Richmond, A. D., G. Lu, B. A. Emery and D. J. Knipp,
The AMIE procedure: Prospects for space weather specification and prediction, Adv. Space Res., 22, No. 1, 103-112, 1998. (Oct 1981, Sep 1986, Jan 1988, Aug 1991)

Siscoe, G., and G. Lu,
Energy transfer via region 2 currents: A test of the standard magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling theory, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 4637-4647, 1998. (Aug 1991, Mar 1992, Jul 1992)

Troshichev, O. A., E. M. Shishkina, G. Lu, and A. D. Richmond,
The relationship of the ionospheric convection reversal to the hard auroral precipitation boundary, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 15,423-15,432, 1996. (Jan 1992, Mar 1992, Jul 1992)

Specific Campaign AMIE References:

-Oct 25, 1981:
Kamide, Y., A. D. Richmond, B. A. Emery, C. F. Hutchins, B.-H. Ahn, O. de la Beaujardiere, J. C. Foster, R. A. Heelis, H. W. Kroehl, F. J. Rich, and J. A. Slavin, Ground-based studies of ionospheric convection associated with substorm expansion, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 19,451-19,466, 1994.

-Jul 23, 1983:
Knipp, D. J., A. D. Richmond, B. Emery, N. U. Crooker, O. de la Beaujardiere, D. Evans. and H. Kroehl, Ionospheric convection response to changing IMF direction, Geophys. Res. Lett., 18, 721-724, 1991.

-Jan 18-19, 1984:
Richmond, A. D., Y. Kamide, B.-H. Ahn, S.-I. Akasofu, D. Alcayde, M. Blanc, O. de la Beaujardiere, D. S. Evans. J. C. Foster, E. Friis-Christensen, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, J. M. Holt, D. Knipp, H. W. Kroehl, R. P. Lepping, R. J. Pellinen, C. Senior, and A. N. Zaitzev, Mapping electrodynamic features of the high-latitude ionosphere from localized observations: Combined incoherent scatter radar and magnetometer measurements for January 18-19, 1984, J. Geophys. Res., 93, 5760-5776, 1988.

Richmond, A. D., Y. Kamide, S.-I. Akasofu, D. Alcayde, M. Blanc, O. de la Beaujardiere, D. S. Evans, J. C. Foster, E. Friis-Christensen, J. M. Holt, R. J. Pellinen, C. Senior, and A. N. Zaitzev.
Global measures of ionospheric electrodynamic activity inferred from combined incoherent scatter radar and ground magnetometer observations. J. Geophys. Res., 95, 1061-1071, 1990.

-Sep 19, 1984:
Knipp, D. J., A. D. Richmond, G. Crowley, O. de la Beaujardiere, E. Friis-Christensen, D. S. Evans, J. C. Foster, I. W. McCrea, F. J. Rich and J. A. Waldock, Electrodynamic patterns for September 19, 1984, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 16,913-16,923, 1989.

-Apr 1-3, 1986:
Lu, G., G. L. Siscoe, A. D. Richmond, T. I. Pulkkinen, N. A. Tsyganenko, H. G. Singer and B. A. Emery, Mapping of the ionospheric field-aligned currents to the equatorial magnetosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 14,467- 14,476, 1997.

-Sep 23-26, 1986:
Emery, B. A., A. D. Richmond, H. W. Kroehl, C. D. Wells, J. M. Ruohoniemi, M. Lester, D. J. Knipp, F. J. Rich, J. C. Foster, O. de la Beaujardiere, C. Senior, L. M. Shier, J. F. McKee, and S. Maeda, Electric potential patterns deduced for the SUNDIAL period of September 23-26, 1986, Ann. Geophys., 8, 399-408, 1990.

-Jan 14, 1988:
Knipp, D. J., B. A. Emery, A. D. Richmond, N. U. Crooker, M. R. Hairston, J. A. Cumnock, W. F. Denig, F. J. Rich, O. de la Beaujardiere, J. M. Ruohoniemi, A. S. Rodger, G. Crowley, B.-H. Ahn, D. S. Evans, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, E. Friis-Christensen, M. Lockwood, H. W. Kroehl, C. G. Maclennan, A. McEwin, R. J. Pellinen, R. J. Morris, G. B. Burns, V. Papitashvili, A. Zaitzev, O. Troshichev, N. Sato, P. Sutcliffe, and L. Tomlinson, Ionospheric convection response to slow, strong variations in a northward Interplanetary Magnetic Field: A case study for January 14, 1988, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 19273-19292, 1993.

Knipp, D. J., B. A. Emery, A. D. Richmond, and M. R. Hairston,
Mapping ionospheric convection response to IMF By negative and Bz positive conditions, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 56, 223-235, 1994.

Knipp, D. J. and B. A. Emery,
Polar cap contraction associated with the leading edge of a magnetic cloud, Geophys. Res. Lett., 23, 305-308, 1996.

-March 20-21, 1990:
Taylor, J. R., T. K. Yeoman, M. Lester, B. A. Emery, and D. J. Knipp, Variations in the polar cap area during intervals of substorm activity on 20-21 March 1990 deduced from AMIE convection patterns, Ann. Geophys., 14, 879-887, 1996.

Taylor, J. R., M. Lester, T. K. Yeoman, B. A. Emery, D. J. Knipp, D. Orr, S. I. Solovyev, T. J. Hughes, and H. Luhr,
The response of the magnetosphere to the passage of a coronal mass ejection on March 20-21, 1990, Ann. Geophys., 15, 671-684, 1997.

-Apr 10, 1990:
Sato, M., Y. Kamide, A. D. Richmond, A. Brekke, and S. Nozawa, Regional estimation of electric fields and currents in the polar ionosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett., 22, 283-286, 1995. (w KRM)

-November 8-9, 1991:
Cooper, M. L., C. R. Clauer, B. A. Emery, A. D. Richmond, and J. D. Winningham,
A storm time assimilative mapping of ionospheric electrodynamics analysis for the severe geomagnetic storm of November 8-9, 1991, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 19,329-19,342, 1995.

-Jan 27-29, 1992:
Fedder, J.A., S.P. Slinker, and J.G. Lyon, A comparison of global numerical simulatioin results to data for the January 27-28, 1992, Geospace Environment Modeling challenge event, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 14,799-14,810, 1998.

Hill, T.W., and F.R. Toffoletto,
Comparison of empirical and theoretical polar cap convection patterns for the January 1992 GEM interval, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 14,811-14,817, 1998.

Lu, G., L. R. Lyons, P. H. Reiff, W. F. Denig, O. de la Beaujardiere, H. W. Kroehl, P. T. Newell, F. J. Rich, H. Opgenoorth, M. A. L. Persson, J. M. Ruohoniemi, E. Friis-Christensen, L. Tomlinson, R. Morris, G. Burns, and A. McEwin,
Characteristics of ionospheric convection and field-aligned current in the dayside cusp region, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 11,845-11,861, 1995.

Lu, G., A. D. Richmond, B. A. Emery, P. H. Reiff, O. de la Beaujardiere, F. J. Rich, W. F. Denig, H. W. Kroehl, L. R. Lyons, J. M. Ruohoniemi, E. Friis-Christensen, H. Opgenoorth, M. A. L. Persson, R. P. Lepping, A. S. Rodger, T. Hughes, A. McEwin, S. Dennis, R. Morris, G. Burns, and L. Tomlinson,
Interhemispheric asymmetry of the high-latitude ionospheric convection pattern, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 6491-6510, 1994.

Lyons, L.R.,
The Geospace Modeling Program grand challenge, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 14,781-14,785, 1998.

Lyons, L. R., G. Lu, O. de la Beaujardiere, and F. J. Rich,
Synoptic maps of polar caps for stable IMF intervals during January 1992 GEM campaign, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 27,283-27,298, 1996.

Raeder, J., J. Berchem, and M. Ashour-Abdalla,
The Geospace Environment Modeling grand challenge: results from a global geospace circulation model, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 14,787-14,797, 1998.

Winglee, R.M., V.O. Papitashvili, and D.R. Weimer,
Comparison of the high-latitude ionospheric electrodynamics inferred from global simulations and semiempirical models for the January 1992 GEM campaign, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 26,961-26,977, 1997.

-March 3, 1992:
Anderson, P.C., A.B. Christensen, J.R. Sharber, P.R. Straus, J.H. Hecht, M.F. Larsen, D.C. Kayser, D.J. McEwen, W.E. Sharp, J.A. Koehler, G.G. Sivjee, L.R. Lyons, D.J. Gutierrez, and J.D. Winningham, The ARIA I rocket campaign, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 17 265-17 283, 1995.

Brinkman, D.G., R.L. Walterscheid, L.R. Lyons, D.C. Kayser, A.B. Christensen, J.R. Sharber, R.A. Frahm, and M.F. Larsen,
E region neutral winds in the postmidnight diffuse aurora during the Atmospheric Response in Aurora 1 rocket campaign, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 17 309-17 320, 1995.

Larsen, M. F., T. R. Marshall, I. S. Mikkelsen, B. A. Emery, A. Christensen, D. Kayser, J. Hecht, L. Lyons, and R. Walterscheid,
Atmospheric Response in Aurora experiment: Observations of E and F region neutral winds in a region of postmidnight diffuse aurora, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 17,299- 17,308, 1995.

-Mar 28-29, 1992:
Baker, K. B., A. S. Rodger, G. Lu, HF-radar observations of the rate of magnetic merging: A GEM boundary layer campaign study, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 9603-9617, 1997.

Lu, G., B. A. Emery, A. S. Rodger, M. Lester, J. R. Taylor, D. S. Evans, J. M. Ruohoniemi, W. F. Denig, O. de la Beaujardiere, R. A. Frahm, J. D. Winningham, and D. L. Chenette,
High-latitude ionospheric electrodynamics as determined by the assimilative mapping of ionospheric electrodynamics procedure for the conjunctive SUNDIAL/ATLAS 1/GEM period of March 28-29, 1992, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 26,697-26,718, 1996.

-Jul 20-21, 1992:
Pinnock, M., A. S. Rodger, K. B. Baker, G. Lu, and M. Hairston, Conjugate observations of the day side reconnection electric field: A GEM boundary layer campaign, Ann. Geophys., submitted, 1998.

-Jan 20-31, 1993:
Buonsanto, M. J., M. Codrescu, B. A. Emery, C. G. Fesen, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, D. J. Melendez-Alvira, and D. P. Sipler, Comparison of models and measurements at Millstone Hill during the January 24-26, 1993 minor storm interval, J. Geophys. Res., 102,7267-7277, 1997.

Fesen, C. G., B. A. Emery, M. J. Buonsanto, Q. H. Zhou and M. P. Sulzer,
Simulations of the F region during the January 1993 10-day campaign, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 7249-7265, 1997.

-Nov 2-11, 1993:
Anderson, B.J., J.B. Gary, T.A. Potemra, R.A. Frahm, J.R. Sharber, and J.D. Winningham, UARS observations of Birkeland currents and Joule heating rates for the November 4, 1993, storm, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 26,323-26,335, 1998.

Knipp, D. J. and B. A. Emery,
Mapping ionospheric substorm response, Adv. Space Res., 20, No 4/5, 895-905, 1997.

Knipp, D. J. and B. A. Emery,
A report on the community study of the early November 1993 geomagnetic storm, Adv. Space Res., 22, No 1, 41-54, 1998.

Knipp, D. J., B. A. Emery, M. Engebretson, X. Li, A. H. McAllister, T. Mukai, S. Kokubun, G. D. Reeves, D. Evans, T. Obara, X. Pi, T. Rosenberg, A. Weatherwax, M. G. McHarg, F. Chun, K. Mosely, M. Codrescu, L. Lanzerotti, F. J. Rich, J. Sharber and P. Wilkinson,
An overview of the early November 1993 geomagnetic storm, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 26,197-26,220, 1998.

Ridley, A. J., T. Moretto, P. Ernstrom, and C. R. Clauer,
Global analysis of three traveling vortex events during the November 1993 storm using the assimilative mapping of ionospheric electrodynamics technique, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 26,349-26,358, 1998.

Stauning, P.,
Substorm modeling based on observations of an intense high-latitude absorption surge event, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 26,433- 26,452, 1998.

-Feb 12, 1994:
Odom, C.D., M.F. Larsen, A.B. Christensen, P.C. Anderson, J.H. Hecht, D.G. Brinkman, R.L. Walterscheid, L.R. Lyons, R. Pfaff, and B.A. Emery, ARIA II neutral flywheel-driven field-aligned currents in the postmidnight sector of the auroral oval: a case study, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 9749-9759, 1997.

-Apr 17-18, 1994:
Siscoe, G. and G. Lu, Dayside Birkeland currents during substorms: An AMIE test of a substorm model, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 19,937-19,940, 1996.

-Mar 15 - Apr 10, 1995:
Ridley, A.J., Ionospheric Convection, Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan, 1997.

Ridley, A. J., G. Lu, C. R. Clauer, and V. O. Papitashvili,
A statistical study of the ionospheric convection response to changing interplanetary magnetic field conditions using the assimilative mapping of ionospheric electrodynamics technique, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 4023-4039, 1998.

Ridley, A. J., G. Lu, C. R. Clauer, V. O. Papitashvili,
Ionospheric convection during nonsteady interplanetary magnetic field conditions, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 14,563-14,579, 1997.

Ridley, A. J. and V. O. Papitashvili,
Dynamics of the ionospheric convection patterns during changes in the northward interplanetary magnetic field conditions: A comparison between AMIE and IZMEM techniques, submitted to J. Geophys. Res., 1997.

Apr 7-11, 1997:
Ridley, A. J., J. B. Baker, G. Crowley and C. R. Clauer, AMIE and POLAR/UVI observations of a substorm during the April 10, 1997 CME event, submitted to Geophys. Res. Lett., 1997.

Jan 9-13, 1997:
Jordanova, V. K., C. J. Farrugia, J. M. Quinn, R. M. Thorne, K. W. Ogilvie, R. P. Lepping, G. Lu, A. J. Lazarus, M. F. Thomsen, and R. D. Belian, Effect of wave-particle interactions on ring current evolution for January 10-11, 1997: Initial results, Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 2971-2974, 1998.

Kamide, Y., J. -H. Shue, X. Li, G. Lu, M. Brittnacher, G. Parks, and G. D. Reeves,
Internal and external triggered substorms: A case study of the January 10, 1997 events, in Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Substorms, edited by S. Kkokubun and Y. Kamide, Kluwer Acdemic Publisher, pp. 305-309, 1998.

Kurth, W. S., T. Murata, G. Lu, D. A. Gurnett, H. Matsumoto,
Auroral kilometric radiation and the auroral electrojet index for the January 1997 magnetic cloud event, Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 3027-3030, 1998.

Lu, G., D. N. Baker, C. J. Farrugia, D. Lummerzheim, J. M. Ruohoniemi,F. J. Rich, D. S. Evans, R. P. Lepping, M. Brittnacher, X. Li, R Greenwald, G. Sofko, J. Villain, M. Lester, J. Thayer, T. Moretto, D. Milling, O. Troshichev, A. Zaitzev, G. Makarov, and K. Hayashi,
Global energy deposition during the January 1997 magnetic cloud event, J. Geophys. Res., 103,11,695-11,684, 1998.

Lu, G., A. D. Richmond, Y. Kamide, D. Lummerzheim, M. Brittnacher, and G. Parks,
Global ionospheric convection during substorm expansion, in Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Substorms, edited by S. Kokubun and Y. Kamide, Kluwer Academic, pp. 617-622, 1998.

Specific Campaign AMIE/T(TI,TIE,TIME)GCM References:

-Sep 19, 1984:
Crowley, G., B. A. Emery, R. G. Roble, H. C. Carlson, Jr., and D. J. Knipp, Thermospheric dynamics during September 18-19, 1984, 1. Model simulations, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 12925-16944, 1989.

Crowley, G., B. A. Emery, R. G. Roble, H. C. Carlson, Jr., J. E. Salah, V. B. Wickwar, K. L. Miller, W. L. Oliver, R. G. Burnside, and F. A. Marcos,
Thermospheric dynamics during September 18-19, 1984, 1. Validation of the NCAR Thermospheric General Circulation Model, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 16945-16959, 1989.

-Mar 28-29, 1992:
Lu, G., A. D. Richmond, B. A. Emery, and R. G. Roble, Magnetosphere- ionosphere-thermosphere coupling: Effect of neutral winds on energy transfer and field-aligned current, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 19,643-19,659, 1995.

Emery, B. A., G. Lu, E. P. Szuszczewicz, A. D. Richmond, R. G. Roble, P. G. Richards, K. L. Miller, R. Niciejewski, D. S. Evans, F. J. Rich, W. F. Denig, D. L. Chenette, P. Wilkinson, S. Pulinets, K. F. O'Loughlin, R. Hanbaba, M. Abdu, P. Jiao, K. Igarashi and B. M. Reddy,
Assimilative mapping of ionospheric electrodynamics in the thermosphere-ionosphere general circulation model comparisons with global ionospheric and thermospheric observations during the GEM/SUNDIAL period of March 28-29, 1992, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 26,681-26,696, 1996.

Szuszczewicz, E. P., D. Torr, P. Wilkinson, P. Richards, R. Roble, B. Emery, G. Lu, M. Abdu, D. Evans, R. Hanbaba, K. Igarashi, P. Jiao, M. Lester, S. Pulinets, B. M. Reddy, P. Blanchard, K. Miller, and J. Joselyn,
F region climatology during the SUNDIAL/ATLAS 1 campaign of March 1992: Model-measurement comparisons and cause-effect relationships, J. Geophys.Res., 101, 26,741-26-758, 1996.

-Nov 2-11, 1993:
Emery, B. A., C. Lathuillere, P. G. Richards, R. G. Roble, M. Buonsanto, D. J. Knipp, P. Wilkinson, D. Sipler and R. Niciejewski, Time dependent thermospheric neutral response to the 2-11 November 1993 storm period, J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys., in press.

-Oct 18-19, 1995:
Lu, G., X. Pi, A. D. Richmond, and R. G. Roble, Variations of total electron content during geomagnetic disturbances: A model/observation comparison, Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 253-256, 1998.

Selected KRM Specific Campaign References:

-Mar 17-19, 1978:
Several Ahn et al, etc papers

-Apr 1-3, 1986:
Ahn, B.-H., Y. Kamide, H. W. Kroehl, M. Candidi and J. S. Murphree, Substorm changes of the electrodynamic quantities in the polar ionosphere: CDAW 9, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 23,845-23,856, 1995.

Other References that AMIE uses:

Apex coordinates:
VanZandt, T. E., W. L. Clark and J. M. Warnock,
Magnetic apex coordinates: A magnetic coordinate system for the ionospheric F2 layer, J. Geophys. Res., 77, 2406-2411, 1972.

Richmond, A. D.,
Ionospheric electrodynamics using magnetic apex coordinates, J. Geomag. Geoelectr., 47, 191-212, 1995.

Statistical models:
Foster, J. C.,
Radar deduced models of the convection electric field, Proceedings of the International Symposium on Quantitative Modelling of Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling Processes, editors Y. Kamide and R. A. Wolf, Kyoto, Japan, 71-76, 1987.

Foster, J. C., J. M. Holt, R. G. Musgrove and D. S. Evans,
Ionosphericconvection associated with discrete levels of particle precipitation, Geophys. Res. Lett., 13, 656-659, 1986.

Fuller-Rowell, T. J. and D. S. Evans,
Height-integrated Pedersen and Hall conductivity patterns inferred from the TIROS-NOAA satellite data, J. Geophys. Res., 92, 7606-7618, 1987.

(Older models)
Heppner, J. P. and N. C. Maynard, Empirical hight-latitude electric field models, J. Geophys. Res., 92, 4467-4489, 1987.

Papitashvili, V. O., B. A. Belov, D. S. Faermark, Ya. I. Feldstein, S. A. Golyshev, L. I. Gromova and A. E. Levitin,
Electric potential patterns in the northern and southern polar regions parameterized by the interplanetary magnetic field, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 13,251-13,262, 1994.

Rich, F. J. and N. C. Maynard,
Consequences of using simple analytical functions for the high-latitude convection electric field, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 3687-3701, 1989.

Weimer, D. R.,
A flexible, IMF dependant model of high-latitude electric potentials having "space weather" applications, Geophys. Res. Lett., 23, 2549-2552, 1996.

(Older models)
Weimer, D. R.,
Models of high-latitude electric potentials derived with a least error fit of spherical harmonic coefficients, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 19,595-19,607, 1995.

Goose Bay HF (Not in AMIE yet):
Ruohoniemi, J. M. and R. A. Greenwald, Observations of IMF and seasonal effects in high-latitude convection, Geophys. Res. Lett., 22, 1121-1124, 1995.

Ruohoniemi, J. M. and R. A. Greenwald,
Statistical patterns of high-latitude convection obtained from Goose Bay HF radar observations, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 21,743-21,763, 1996.

Conductance Formulae:
Ahn, B.-H., R. M. Robinson, Y. Kamide and S.-I. Akasofu,
Electric conductivities, electric fields and auroral energy injection rate in the auroral ionosphere and their empirical relations to the horizontal magnetic disturbances, Planet. Space Sci., 31, 641-653, 1983.

Ahn, B.-H., A. D. Richmond, Y. Kamide, H. W. Kroehl, B. A. Emery, O. de la Beaujardiere and S.-I. Akasofu,
An ionospheric conductance model based on ground magnetic disturbance data, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 14,769-14,780, 1998.

Robinson, R. M., R. R. Vondrak, K. Miller, T. Dabbs and D. Hardy,
On calculating ionospheric conductances from the flux and energy of precipitating electrons, J. Geophys. Res., 92, 2565-2569, 1987.

UV Images (Including Conductances):
Germany, G. A., G. K. Parks, M. Brittnacher, J. Cumnock, D. Lummerzheim, J. F. Spann, L. Chen, P. G. Richards and F. J. Rich,
Remote determination of auroral energy characteristics during substorm activity, Geophys. Res. Lett., 24, 995-998, 1997.

Lummerzheim, D., M. Brittnacher, D. Evans, G. A. Germany, G. K. Parks, M. H. Rees and J. F. Spann,
High-time resolution study of the hemispheric power carried by energetic electrons into the ionosphere during the May 19/20, 1996 auroral activity, Geophys. Res. Lett., 24, 987-990, 1997.

Lummerzheim, D., M. H. Rees, J. D. Craven and L. A. Frank,
Ionospheric conductances derived from DE-1 auroral images, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 53, 281-292, 1991.

AMIE Home PageReturn to AMIE home page
HAO Home Page Return to HAO homepage.

-Revised 28 Jan, 1999. Don Kolinski